In Jay Caulfield’s book How To Design and Teach a Hybrid Course: Achieving Student-Centered Learning Through Blended Classroom, Online, and Experiential Activities, he discusses the process of creating, participating in, and evaluating discussions as a means of learning. An instructor should consider the following:
- setting the tone of the discussion;
- preparing students for meaningful discussion;
- creating logistically clear directions for discussion assignments;
- evaluating discussion work; and
- defining roles of the student and instructor when engaging in the discussion (Caulfield, 81).
When designing online discussions, Caulfield identifies the following variables to consider:
- class size;
- student demographic; and
- teaching preferences (Caulfield 82).
We would add the following to this list:
- type of interaction (student-student, student-instructor, student-content);
- desired learning outcomes; and
- level of Bloom’s taxonomy being facilitated.
SETTING THE TONE
FORMAL VS. INFORMAL
Online discussions can be used in both formal and informal ways. Consider the following elements in deciding the tone.
|academic language||casual language|
|citations included||personal thoughts, opinions, and/or reflections|
|evaluated on both content and presentation||evaluated on content only.|
|clearly communicated expectations of structure and form of posting||casual structure|
|requires more time to construct post||requires little time to construct post.|
Whether, when, and how much presence the instructor has will affect how the discussion is constructed and facilitated.
|Topic generated by instructor||Topics generated by students|
|Instructor reviews all posts and comments||Instructor may review but limits efforts to control or guide discussion|
|Purpose is to measure understanding||Purpose is to facilitate reflection and share perspectives|
|Outcome focused on grade||Outcome focused on further in-class discussion|
PLANNING THE DISCUSSION ASSIGNMENT
When planning your unit activities, it is useful to map out what parts would work better online and what parts would work better in the classroom. Consider the desired outcomes below.
- Independent Reflection: If you want to students to reflect independently on content, and/or make personal connections, the discussion should probably take place online. Students will have time to response to a question posed by you.
- Understanding of Multiple Perspectives: If you want students to appreciate and understand a topic from multiple perspectives, the discussion could occur either online or in the classroom. Consider the amount of time available in class. Consider whether this activity will benefit from or be hindered by the hierarchical structure of an online discussion forum. Classroom or small group discussions may be more organic in nature. Online discussions may provide the opportunity for deeper reflection, and the discussion question may be more opened ended.
- Measuring Mastery: If you want to know whether students understand content before class, online discussions can place students in a position to apply knowledge for the purpose of measuring understanding. This can be used for self-guided formative assessment or graded for summative assessment purposes. You will need to consider the time necessary for you to respond to all student posts, so smaller classes may be better suited for discussions with this type of outcome.
SELLING ONLINE DISCUSSIONS
When you are designing an online discussion, you need to market it so students understand its purpose. Consider the following questions:
- Why will students complete this activity? Is it graded? Do they know the purpose of the activity? Will they care?
- How much time will their participation take? Are the outcomes worthy of that time?
- How will they know whether they were “successful?” What does success look like? How can you communicate that to students?
- What is the return on investment for students? Will the results be leveraged for another activity? Will you integrate it into the next class period? Will you/they do something with the results?